Light-struck” is a phenomenon that affects beer’s flavor and aroma when exposed to light. This occurs due to the presence of light-sensitive hop compounds, primarily alpha acids, which give beer its refreshing bitterness. When exposed to light, these compounds break down, creating off-flavors and smells that can significantly diminish the quality and enjoyment of the beverage.
In brewing, hops are an essential ingredient that lends a distinct bitterness and aroma to beer. However, when beer is subjected to sunlight or even certain artificial light sources, the alpha acids in hops can react with riboflavin, a natural component found in beer, forming dimethyl allyl radicals.
These radicals, in turn, can produce a range of undesirable flavors and odors, including a sulfurous, skunky aroma that many perceive as a telltale sign of light-struck beer. This can happen at any stage of a beer’s life, from fermentation to storage and even during consumption, making it an issue that brewers and drinkers alike need to be aware of.
What is Light Struck?
Light struck, commonly known as “skunked” beer, refers to a specific off-flavor that develops in beer when it is exposed to certain wavelengths of light. This exposure leads to a chemical reaction that produces a skunk-like aroma and taste, giving the term its colloquial name. The unwanted exposure to light can result in a spoiled beer with an unpleasant flavor profile.
The main cause of this phenomenon is a reaction between riboflavin, a compound naturally present in beer, and the isohumulones, which are the bitter compounds derived from hops.
When beer is exposed to light, the riboflavin absorbs energy and becomes highly reactive, leading it to break down the isohumulones into smaller molecules. Some of these smaller molecules can then combine with sulfur compounds, producing the characteristic skunk-like smell.
It is essential to note that not all light exposure will result in a light-struck beer. The wavelengths most responsible for this reaction are found in the blue and ultraviolet regions of the spectrum.
Consequently, beers stored under incandescent or LED lighting emit lower levels of these wavelengths and are less likely to become light struck. On the other hand, beers exposed to sunlight or fluorescent lighting emitting higher levels of blue and ultraviolet light are at greater risk.
Effects on Beer
This section will discuss the changes in flavor and aroma, along with the visual appearance of the beer when it is lightstruck.
Flavor and Aroma Changes
Lightstruck flavors and aromas can be easily confused with some sulfur compounds that are produced in the brewing process, such as dimethyl sulfide (DMS). It’s essential to differentiate between the two, as they have different causes and require separate preventative measures.
In addition to altering the flavor and aroma of a beer, light exposure can also affect its visual appearance. The intensity of the beer’s color can be diminished, and the clarity can be reduced as a result of the photo-oxidation process. Protecting beer from light is crucial to maintain not only its appealing appearance but also its overall quality.
To minimize the risk of lightstruck beer, storing and packaging the beer in a way that limits light exposure is essential. Brown glass bottles offer the best protection against light damage, while green glass offers some protection, and clear glass offers none. Cans and kegs provide complete protection against light exposure.
This section will discuss the prevention methods for light-struck beer, including proper packaging and storage conditions.
Choosing the right packaging for beer plays a vital role in preventing light-struck effects. The main goal is to block or minimize the exposure of beer to ultraviolet (UV) light. Here are some packaging options:
Amber glass bottles – They are among the most common and effective packaging solutions, as they can block a significant amount of UV light, keeping the beer safe from light-struck reactions.
Cans – Beer cans, made of aluminum or steel, are completely opaque and protect beer from UV exposure. This option can also help to extend the shelf life of the product.
Dark plastic bottles or containers – While less common, dark-colored plastic bottles can be used to protect beer from light. However, the effectiveness of the plastic may not be on par with glass or cans.
Improper storage conditions can lead to light-struck beer. To prevent this issue, it’s important to follow these recommendations:
Avoid direct sunlight – Make sure to store beer in a cool and dark place, such as a pantry or cellar, where it won’t be exposed to direct sunlight.
Keep a constant temperature – Beer should be stored at a consistent temperature (ideally between 50 to 60 degrees Fahrenheit). Fluctuating temperatures may affect the quality and taste of the beer.
Don’t store beer for too long – Consume beer within the recommended time frame, as extended storage can lead to a higher risk of light-struck effects.
Light-struck, also known as skunky beer, is a result of the beer’s exposure to light, particularly UV and visible light with wavelengths up to 500 nm. The reaction occurs when light interacts with the iso-α-acids present in beer, which are hop-derived compounds. This reaction can happen at different stages of a beer’s life, such as fermentation, cellaring, bottling, aging, and imbibing.
Beer packaging plays a vital role in protecting beer from the harmful effects of light. Brown glass bottles offer almost total protection, while green glass offers some protection. However, clear glass bottles provide no protection against light exposure. Aluminum cans and beer kegs offer the best protection against light damage.
It is essential to be aware that the blue part of the visible light spectrum (350-550 nm) causes the most damage to beer. Strong sunlight can result in a beer becoming light-struck in less than 20 seconds, while the effects of fluorescent lighting in fridges may take days or weeks to become noticeable.
In summary, understanding the impact of light on beer quality and taking preventive measures can help preserve the intended flavor and aroma of the beer. Storing and packaging beer in appropriate materials, such as brown glass bottles or aluminum cans, can make a significant difference in preventing the occurrence of light-struck off-flavors.
P.S. Grab Big Robb’s top 5 favorite beer recipes from his brewpub on the side of the blog or at the bottom if you are on your phone. Cheers!