How to Make Rakija: Crafting the Perfect Rakija

Immersed deep within the culture and tradition of the Balkan region lies the heritage of rakija, an alcoholic beverage that brings warmth to many gatherings and social occasions. Rakija, an enduring symbol of hospitality, camaraderie, and heritage, embodies the spirit of the region in more ways than one. This potent yet tasteful drink is created through a meticulous process that spans weeks to years, depending on the desired outcome. This article will guide you step-by-step on how to make rakija, exploring everything from selecting the finest fruit to understanding the complexity of the distillation process.

Beyond the intoxicating warmth it provides, rakija is a testament to the artistry, patience, and dedication that go into creating this distinguished spirit. As you venture into this guide, you’ll gain not only a deeper understanding of the process but also an appreciation for the tradition and craftsmanship that make rakija a beloved drink.

How to Make Rakija

Choosing the Fruit

Quality and Ripeness

In the realm of rakija making, the fruit is king. The choice of fruit significantly impacts the overall taste, aroma, and quality of the final product. Therefore, selecting the best quality fruit is the first step in making superb rakija.

High-quality fruit is ripe but not overripe, as this ensures a balance between the fruit’s natural sugars and acidity levels. Overripe fruits can contribute to higher sugar content, resulting in a higher alcohol level in your rakija. Conversely, underripe fruits lack the necessary sugar for fermentation, resulting in a less alcoholic and potentially sour rakija. Therefore, the optimal time to harvest the fruit is when it’s at its peak ripeness.

The fruit must also be free from blemishes, mold, and insects. Damage to the fruit can lead to spoilage during the fermentation process, affecting the quality of the rakija. Always remember, the better the quality of your fruit, the better the quality of your rakija.

Type of Fruit

The type of fruit used for making rakija varies depending on personal preferences and regional availability. Plums, apples, pears, and apricots are traditionally used, but many other fruits can be employed.

Plum rakija, known as Slivovitz, is perhaps the most popular type of rakija. It’s renowned for its robust and complex flavor profile, with notes ranging from sweet to tart. Apple rakija, on the other hand, has a sweeter and smoother profile. Pear rakija is known for its delicate and subtle flavor, while apricot rakija has a sweet, rich, and slightly tangy flavor.

Preparing the Fruit

Washing and Sorting

Once you’ve chosen your fruit, the next step is preparing it for the fermentation process. Thoroughly wash the fruit to remove any dirt, pesticides, or other potential contaminants that could interfere with the fermentation process.

After washing, sort through the fruit and discard any pieces that are rotten or excessively damaged. It’s crucial to ensure that only the best pieces are selected for fermentation, as the presence of rotten fruit can introduce undesirable bacteria and molds, leading to off-flavors in the final product.

Crushing and Fermenting

Crushing the fruit is an essential step in the rakija-making process. By crushing, you’re breaking down the cell walls of the fruit, releasing the juices and sugars necessary for fermentation. You can use a fruit crusher for this purpose or, if you’re making a small batch, crushing by hand is an acceptable method.

Once the fruit is crushed, it’s transferred to a fermentation vessel. The crushed fruit mixture, also known as a mash, will undergo fermentation, transforming the natural sugars into alcohol. This process typically takes two to four weeks and should occur at a consistent room temperature to maintain optimal yeast activity.

Distillation Process

Setting up the Still

The magic of turning your fermented mash into a high-proof spirit happens in the still. A traditional rakija still, or kazan, is made up of several parts: the pot, where the fermented fruit mash goes; the swan neck or lyne arm, which channels the evaporated alcohol; the condenser, where the alcohol vapor cools down and turns back into liquid; and the collection vessel.

Setting up the still correctly is vital for a successful distillation process. The fermented mash goes into the pot, the top of the pot is sealed to prevent vapor from escaping, and the other end of the swan neck is connected to the condenser.

Heating and Condensing

The distillation process begins by applying heat to the pot, causing the alcohol in the fermented mash to evaporate. Since alcohol has a lower boiling point than water, it will start to evaporate first.

As the alcohol vapor rises through the swan neck, it reaches the condenser, where it’s cooled down and returns to liquid form. This liquid is collected in the collection vessel, and this is your rakija.

The distillation process may need to be done twice, known as double distillation. The first distillation, called the rough or strip run, collects the majority of the alcohol and some flavor compounds. The second distillation, or spirit run, refines the product, removing more impurities and concentrating the flavor.

Rakija Aging and Storage

Aging in Barrels

Once you’ve successfully distilled your rakija, the next phase is aging. Aging is where the rakija develops its unique flavor, color, and aroma. This process can take anywhere from a few months to several years, depending on the type of fruit used and the desired taste profile.

Traditionally, rakija is aged in wooden barrels. Oak barrels are particularly popular because they infuse the rakija with a unique flavor and a beautiful amber color. The oak wood also allows for a small amount of oxygen to interact with the rakija, helping to mellow out any harsh flavors.

Bottling and Storing

After aging, the rakija is ready to be bottled. Glass bottles are preferred for storing rakija because they don’t impart any flavors or chemicals to the spirit. When filling the bottles, it’s important to ensure that they’re clean and dry to prevent any contamination.

Once bottled, rakija should be stored in a cool, dark place. Light and heat can degrade the quality of the rakija over time, so it’s best to store your bottles in a cellar or cupboard away from direct sunlight.

Rakija Recipe

The following is a Rakija recipe you to use when learning how to make rakija.

The exact yield of this rakija recipe can vary significantly depending on the type of fruit used, its sugar content, the efficiency of the fermentation and distillation processes, among other factors.

However, as a general estimate, 20 kg of fruit can potentially yield about 3 to 5 liters of rakija. If the fruit is very juicy and high in sugar, and if the fermentation and distillation processes are conducted efficiently, the yield may be at the higher end of this range.

Keep in mind that this is an approximation, and actual results can vary. Also remember, the aim of making rakija should be quality over quantity. Taking the time to carefully follow each step of the process will help ensure that your final product is as good as it can be.


20 kg of fruit (plums, apples, pears, apricots, etc.)
Distilled water
50g of wine yeast
Large food-grade container for fermentation
Fruit crusher or press
Still (pot, swan neck, condenser, collection vessel)
Wooden barrels or glass bottles for aging


Prepare the Fruit: Choose ripe, high-quality fruit. Wash them thoroughly to remove any dirt or pesticides, and discard any rotten or damaged pieces.

Crush the Fruit: Use a fruit crusher or press to crush the fruit, releasing the juices and sugars. This should result in a pulpy mixture known as the mash.

Start the Fermentation: Transfer the mash to a large food-grade container. Add a small amount of distilled water to ensure the mash is moist, but not too watery. Mix in the wine yeast following the package instructions.

Ferment the Mash: Cover the container and let it sit in a dark place at room temperature. The fermentation process will take approximately 2-4 weeks. Stir the mash every few days to prevent mold formation. Use a hydrometer to check the sugar content in your mash. Once it reads zero, the fermentation process is complete.

Distill the Rakija: Transfer the fermented mash into the pot of your still. Attach the swan neck to the pot and the condenser to the other end of the swan neck. Apply heat to the pot, causing the alcohol to evaporate, rise through the swan neck, condense in the condenser, and drip out into the collection vessel. Discard the first 100-200ml of liquid (called the heads) as it contains harmful alcohols. Collect the liquid until the alcohol content drops below 40% (measured with a hydrometer or alcoholmeter).

Double Distill (Optional): Some rakija makers prefer to do a second distillation, called the spirit run. If you choose to do this, repeat the distillation process with the liquid collected from the first distillation.

Age the Rakija: Transfer the distilled rakija into wooden barrels for aging. This step is where the rakija develops its unique flavor, color, and aroma. Depending on the type of fruit and the desired taste, this process can take anywhere from a few months to several years.

Bottle the Rakija: After aging, transfer the rakija into clean, dry glass bottles. Store the bottles in a cool, dark place to preserve the quality of the rakija.

Remember, making rakija is a labor of love that requires patience and attention to detail. Enjoy the process and, in time, you’ll have a homemade spirit that you can truly be proud of.

How to Make Rakija Frequently Asked Questions

What are the main ingredients for making rakija?

The main ingredient for making rakija is fruit. The type of fruit used can vary, but plums, apples, pears, and apricots are commonly used. Water and yeast are also necessary for the fermentation process, and the distillation process requires the use of a still.

What is the fermentation process for rakija?

Fermentation is a natural process where yeast converts the sugars present in the fruit into alcohol and carbon dioxide. The process begins once the fruit is crushed and transferred to a fermentation vessel, and it takes place at a consistent room temperature over a period of two to four weeks.

What equipment is needed to distill rakija?

To distill rakija, you’ll need a still, also known as a kazan in the Balkans. The still is comprised of several parts: the pot, where you place the fermented fruit mash; the swan neck, which directs the vapor; the condenser, where the vapor is cooled and turned back into liquid; and the collection vessel.

How long does it take to make a batch of rakija?

The process of making a batch of rakija is a labor of love that can take anywhere from several weeks to several years. The fermentation process usually takes two to four weeks, while the distillation process can take several hours to a day. The aging process, which develops the flavors and color of the rakija, can take from several months to several years.

What type of fruit is commonly used in rakija?

Rakija can be made from a variety of fruits. Plums, apples, pears, and apricots are traditionally used, but other fruits like grapes, peaches, and cherries can also be used to make rakija.

What are some popular rakija flavor variations?

There are many flavor variations of rakija, depending on the type of fruit used. Some popular variations include plum (Slivovitz), which has a robust and complex flavor; apple, which is sweeter and smoother; pear, known for its delicate and subtle flavor; and apricot, which has a rich, sweet, and slightly tangy flavor.


Learning how to make rakija is a fascinating journey into a centuries-old Balkan tradition. From choosing the perfect fruit, through the patient process of fermentation and the delicate art of distillation, to the slow, transformative aging process, each step plays a vital role in creating a rakija that is truly your own. By following these steps, you’ll be able to enjoy the fruits of your labor, one warming sip at a time.

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